Debrecen is located on the Hungarian Great Plains (Alföld), 22 miles from the Romanian border and about 160 miles from Budapest.
This area was already populated in the 9th century -Vandals, Sarmatians, Avars and Gepids lived here first. The Regestrum of Várad
contains the first written reference to the city, dating back to 1253. The name Debrecen most probably originates from the Slavic „dobre zlijem”, meaning „good soil”
After the invasion of the Tartaric tribes, the city progressed rapidly and soon became a determinant place in the history of Hungary. Its wealth and importance in the 17th century was built on cattle trading, which created a fertile basis for the development of a prospering school system where famous Hungarian poets and professors were educated.
In 1693 Lipót I
ranked the town to be a city, and in 1715, after the return of the Piarist Monks, the Saint Anna Cathedral was built. After 1849 Debrecen was the capital of Hungary for a short period of time, and in April 1849, the dethronement of Habsburgs and the independence of Hungary was proclaimed here by Louis Kossuth
at the Great (Calvinist) Church. After the 1848-49 Revolution, a slow recovery can be observed: new railroads, kindergartens, schools and hospitals were built, along with factories and banks, giving a new image to the city.
World War I turned Debrecen into a border town again (Hungary's borders have been redrawn), and tourism was the only way to revive the city. This is when the Hortobágy
, a vast pasture owned by the city, became an extremely popular tourist attraction
. After World War II, the city slowly began to prosper again, however, during the nationalization of the land, the city lost more than half of its territory as well as its executive rights over the Hortobágy.
Debrecen offers famous annual programs, such as the Flower Carnival held on 20th of August every year
, the Spring Carnival
, the Jazz Days
, or the Béla Bartók International Competition for Choirs
Many famous Hungarian poets and writers attended the educational institutions of the city, like Mihály Csokonai Vitéz, János Arany, Ferenc Kölcsey, Zsigmond Móricz, and Endre Ady. Mihály Fazekas, author of the epic poem “Lúdas Matyi” (Matt the Goose-boy) lived in the city, as did Louis Kossuth and his family in 1849. Mór Jókai, a famous Hungarian writer, also spent six months in Debrecen, working as a journalist.
The Department of the National Commission of Defense resided here for a short time, and the Holy Crown of Hungary was held in the city's care under the Revolution
County Hall Debrecen
One of the most fascinating buildings in secessionist style, the Debrecen County Hall is located on Market Street. Its facade is decorated with burnt granite ornament pieces made by the famous Zsolnay factory
, as well as chaplets and four heyducks in arms, with the blazon of Hajdu County in the center. The most valuable part of the so-called Arpad Hall are the window paintings depicting the seven Magyar leaders of the Conquest of the Carpathian Basin
'Frustum' Church Debrecen
Used as a barn by the troops of the Emperor of Austria during the Rákóczi war of independence (1703 - 1711), the building burnt down in 1719. It was rebuilt, but in 1907 its onion-shaped steeple was badly damaged in a fierce storm. Architects then decided to give the tower the final, bastion-shaped form, and ever since then the building is called the 'Frustum' church
The Great Church Debrecen
The symbol of the city, the Great Calvinist Church was built based on plans developed by József Thaler between 1805 and 1823. Today it provides an excellent venue for organ concerts and philharmonics
are also held in the gallery above the dome.
Civis Grand Hotel Aranybika (Golden Bull)**** Debrecen
Come and stay at the place where famous Hungarian leaders such as Istvan Szechenyi
, Ferenc Deak, Miklos Wesselenyi and Zsigmond Moricz rested their heads when in Debrecen
Developments on Debrecen International Airport
AIRPORT-DEBRECEN Ltd. completed further improvements on Debrecen International Airport, which welcomed over 40,000 visitors last year through its permanent Air border crossing point and duty line. One of the developments included increasing the available parking space, open free of charge to both departing and arriving travelers
Debrecen International Airport
On March 2007, we received the following Press Release from Debrecen Facility Management CC (Debreceni Vagyonkezelő Zrt.
). (We’ve added a few editor’s comments in italics, where we deemed useful.)